The following bibliography contains a selection of recent books and articles, including publications by conference speakers, on urbanization and the challenge of green cities.
BBC. “Cities for people, old trees and missing billions.” One Planet. BBC. 23 Jan. 2011. Radio.
Speaking with Danish architect Jan Gehl, this program discusses the failure of city planners who have focused their projects on “making cars happy” rather than trying to help the people living within the urban areas. Other topics approached in the program are corruption in developing countries and old trees.
Brand, Stewart. “City Planet.” Strategy+Business. Issue 42. (Spring 2006)
Cities generate wealth and shrink population. As billions move from the country to the cities in the developing world, at a rate unprecedented in history, the nature of the world economy is shifting.
Brand, Stewart. “Stewart Brand on squatter cities.’” TED. Feb. 2006. Video
Rural villages worldwide are being deserted, as billions of people flock to cities to live in teeming squatter camps and slums. Stewart Brand explains why in this 3 minute video.
Brand, Stewart. “Urban squatters save the world.” What Matters (whatmatters.mckinseydigital.com). McKinsey & Company. 7 Jan. 2011.
As populations shift from villages to cities, ecosystems within abandoned villages begin to grow back and shantytowns develop significant sources of informal and efficient economic activity. They are leading to improved lifestyles for ambitious, young, and vibrant communities.
Despommier, Dickson. “Cities alive!” What Matters (whatmatters.mckinseydigital.com). McKinsey & Company. 7 Jan. 2011.
The article explains the concept of the “Vertical Farm” as an example of a sustainable food source, arguing that cities must combat “sprawlism” and develop a new urban philosophy based on balance and efficiency.
Dobbs, Richard. “Prime Numbers: Megacities.” Foreign Policy Magazine. Sept.-Oct. 2010: 132-135.
Research shows that the young populations of new, rapidly growing squatter communities are developing informal economies with significant levels of solidarity that will require their governments to adapt. As new forms of self-organizing behavior take root within the growing slums, the article claims the international community will find an inevitable clash between old and new city systems.
Eichholtz, Piet, Nils Kok, and John M. Quigley. “Doing Well by Doing Good? Green Office Buildings.” Working Papers. Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy, Institute of Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley. Dec. 2010.
Concentrating on commercial property, this paper provides a systematic analysis of the impact environmentally sustainable building practices has on economic outcomes as measured in the marketplace.
Foreign Policy. “The 2010 Global Cities Index.” Foreign Policy Magazine. Sept.-Oct. 2010: 124.
Measuring a wide variety of indicators from a city’s business activity, human capital, and information exchange to its cultural experience and political engagement, the article describes the results of a new index to measure the amount of influence a city has outside its own borders.
Glaeser, Edward. “Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier.” The Penguin Press. New York. 2011. Print.
Glaeser takes us around the world and into the mind of the modern city—from Mumbai to Paris to Rio to Detroit to Shanghai, and to any number of points in between—to reveal how cities think, why they behave in the manners that they do, and what wisdom they share with the people who inhabit them. He reminds us forcefully why we should nurture our cities or suffer consequences that will hurt us all, no matter where we live.
Karlenzig, Warren. “The Death of Sprawl.” The Post Carbon Reader Series: Cities, Towns, and Suburbs. 2010.
Condemning the car-dominant model of urban, suburban, and exurban development as unsustainable, the article calls for concurrent steps to prepare American cities, towns, and suburbs for the future.
Kasarda, John, and Greg Lindsay. “Aerotropolis: The Way We’ll Live Next.” Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011. Print.
A combination of giant airport, planned city, shipping facility and business hub, the aerotropolis will be at the heart of the next phase of globalization. The airport city will be not just a powerful engine for local economic development, but also a new international forum for ideas and innovation, offering a place for travelers to exchange knowledge, shop, eat, sleep, be entertained and conduct business.
Katz, Bruce. “City Centered.” Time. 21 Oct. 2010
It’s not by focusing on the mythologized small-town America but rather by investing in major metropolises that a new economy, driven by exports, powered by low-carbon, and fueled by innovation, can be formed. Cities will lead this transformation by making smart investments and managing growth, ultimately becoming unparalleled engines for the next spurt of American prosperity.
Khanna, Parag. “Beyond City Limits.” Foreign Policy Magazine. Sept.-Oct. 2010: 120-128.
When global hubs are coupled with growing superpopulous megacities, their roles expand at the international level as they become the magnets for economies, innovators in politics, and, increasingly, drivers of diplomacy.
Khanna, Parag. “When cities rule the world.” What Matters (whatmatters.mckinseydigital.com). McKinsey & Company. 7 Jan. 2011.
Framed in three different forms called global hubs, mega-cities, and gateway cities, the new urban topology is described as an emerging foundation for improving global wealth, population growth, and strategic innovation, reducing the significance of national borders.
Kriken, John. “City Building: Nine Planning Principles for the Twenty-First Century.” New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2010. Print.
Good city building counters the sprawl of suburbia with concentrated land use, replaces globalized design with regionally appropriate building types, contains infrastructure to a small footprint, and otherwise allows for livable, desirable communities. The author presents a path for comprehensive problem solving rather than symptom-based problem solving.
Lerner, Jaime. “Jaime Lerner sings of the city.” TED. Mar. 2007. Video.
Jaime Lerner reinvented urban space in his native Curitiba, Brazil. Along the way, he changed the way city planners worldwide see what’s possible in the metropolitan landscape.
Lindsay, Greg. “At home in the aerotropolis.” What Matters (whatmatters.mckinseydigital.com). McKinsey & Company. 1 Feb. 2011.
Using Korea’s “instant city,” Songdo, as an example of an aerotropolis, this article explains the importance of cities and their proximity to airports and communication hubs in an increasingly globalized world.
Metropolitan Policy Program, The Brookings Institution; LSE Cities, London School of Economics and Political Science; with Deutsche Bank Research. “The Path to Economic Recovery.” Global Metro Monitor. Metropolitan Policy Program, The Brookings Institution. December 2010.
Re-enforcing the importance of cities in the world economy, this overview explains how the Great Recession has shifted the ranks of metro-areas in the world.
Mirabilis Advisory. “Urbanization & Sustainability in India: An Interdependent Agenda.” The Alternative Urban Futures Report. Mirabilis Advisory. 2010.
As India embarks on a period of rapid urbanization in the coming decades, the report explains that in order to create a sustainable urban “DNA” in existing cities, they will need to focus on density, walkability, and new paradigms for governance.
MIT Sloan Management Review in cooperation with The Boston Consulting Group. “Sustainability: The ‘Embracers’ Seize Advantage.” Research Report Winter 2011. MIT Sloan Management Review. 2011.
How fast are businesses adopting sustainability-driven management? The study results reveal two distinct camps: ‘embracers’ and ‘cautious adopters.’ The practices of the embracers may be providing a snapshot of how the management future will look.
Neuwirth, Robert. “In the markets of the meta city.” What Matters (whatmatters.mckinseydigital.com). McKinsey & Company. 7 Jan. 2011.
As squatter communities and shantytowns grow alongside cities, informal businesses, below the radar of governments, regulations, and statistics, continue to thrive as a part of the urban revolution leading to the formation of meta-cities.
Register, Richard. “Let’s build cities for people (not cars).” What Matters (whatmatters.mckinseydigital.com). McKinsey & Company. 7 Jan. 2011.
Built around the car, cities have developed through an unsustainable model of sprawling suburbs. The article proposes the idea of the compact city as a solution: geographically designed for pedestrians.
Siemens. “European Green Cities Index.” Economist Intelligence Unit. Siemens AG. 2009.
Using a broad range of factors, from environmental governance and water consumption to waste management and greenhouse gas emissions, this study seeks to measure and rate the environmental performance of 30 leading European cities, and provide a portrait explaining the strengths and weaknesses of each.
Siemens. “Urban centers and their challenges.” Infrastructure Challenges. Siemens AG.
The world of tomorrow will be shaped in large measure by the megatrend of urbanization. Providing adequate supplies of energy, water and other everyday necessities while ensuring mobility, security, industrial production and environmental protection will be a major challenge Siemens looks to provide answers in a variety of reports:
“London: Study on sustainable infrastructure”
“Munich: Study on a carbon-free future.”
“Helping Ireland to meet its climate protection goals.”
“The Megacities Study.”
Woetzel, Jonathan. “China’s cities in the sky.” What Matters (whatmatters.mckinseydigital.com). McKinsey & Company. 7 Jan. 2011.
Using China’s rapidly increasing urban population, the article suggests a new model focusing on dense, vertical, and sustainable megacities.
Zenghelis, Dimitri. “A Macroeconomic Plan for a Green Recovery.” Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy and the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment. Jan. 2011.
The article describes an opportunity for policy-makers to create viable new markets, boost private investment and innovation, and stimulate the economy without requiring large public expenditure by sending a credible market signal in the form of clearly identified market-based policy instruments.